The Protestant Reformers did not make up their teaching about God’s foreknowledge, sovereignty, and divine purpose. Here’s Augustine:
“Now God foreknew everything, and therefore could not have been unaware that man would sin. It follows that all our assertions about the Holy City must take into account God’s foreknowledge and his providential design; we must not advance theories which could not have become matters of knowledge for us, because they had no place in God’s plan. Man could not upset the divine purpose by his sin, in the sense of compelling God to alter his decision. For God in his foreknowledge anticipated both results: he knew beforehand how evil the man would become whom God himself had created good; he also knew what good, even so, he would bring out of man’s evil.”
Of course, ultimately the Reformers did not lean on Augustine, but Scripture:
“[God] works out everything in conformity with the purpose of his will” (Eph. 1:11 NIV).
“[Jesus] was handed over…by God’s deliberate plan and foreknowledge…” (Acts 2:23 NIV).
“The plans of the LORD stand firm forever…” (Ps. 33:11 NIV).
“He does as he pleases with the powers of heaven and the peoples of the earth. No one can hold back his hand or say to him: ‘What have you done?'” (Dan. 4:35 NIV)
To be sure, there are quite a few other Bible texts that affirm the truth that God is sovereign and in total control of all things. Nothing surprises him; his counsel will stand and nothing can thwart his plans or purposes. This is good news for Christians. Not only do all things come our way by the good and sovereign will of God, but our salvation is also secure because it is part of his sovereign plan in Christ.
The above quote from Augustine is found in City of God, XIV.11.
Covenant Presbyterian Church (OPC)