One of my favorite books on apologetics and worldview is A World of Difference by Kenneth Samples. I’ve mentioned it here on the blog from time to time; while I was recently flipping through it again, I re-read a helpful discussion of the Christian, biblical view of knowledge (Christian epistemology). I’ll summarize it here:
1) Extreme skepticism is self-defeating. Like the universal denial of truth, extreme skepticism with regard to knowledge is self-defeating and therefore false. The skeptic’s reasoning (‘one cannot know’) backfires for surely he at least claims to know that he doesn’t know – an assertion which is self-referentially incoherent or absurd.
2) Knowledge is possible with God as its source and foundation. The Bible indicates that human beings can attain genuine knowledge of God, the self, and the world (Ps. 19:1-4, Acts 17:27-28, Rom. 1:18-21). The Creator sustains the universe and the mind and sensory organs of man in such a way that they correspond with each other and him. Because man is created in God’s image, human beings can trust in the reliability of the basic process of knowing.
3) Knowledge is directly connected to God’s revelatory acts. God’s general and special revelation make knowledge available. In other words, people can come to ‘know’ through exercising their God-given rational capacities, through empirical observation.
4) Knowledge is properly justified true belief. 1) Knowledge involves belief. It is a necessary part of knowing, for no one can know something unless he believes it. 2) A person can only know things that are true. An individual can think she knows something to be true but, in fact, be wrong. 3) A person can believe something to be true, that is in fact true, but it wouldn’t constitute knowledge if it lacks proper justification. Knowledge involves some form of confirmation or evidence.
5) Human knowledge is limited and affected by sin. 1) Human beings, though quite well-endowed intellectually by way of bearing God’s image, are nevertheless finite creatures by nature. As a result, unlike God, they have limitations with regard to knowledge and rational comprehension in the essence of their being. 2) Human reason has been negatively affected by sin. To some degree sin impairs human intelligence and rationality. (However, sin does not effect the laws of logic or of correct reasoning.)
6) The Christian faith involves knowledge and is compatible with reason. 1) The Christian faith affirms that there is an objective source and foundation for knowledge, reason, and rationality; that basis is found in a personal and rational God. 2) Christian truth-claims – though they often transcend finite human comprehension – do not violate the basic laws or principles of reason. 3) The Bible encourages the attainment of knowledge, wisdom, and understanding. 4) The truths of the Christian faith correspond to and are supported by things such as evidence, facts, and reason. Biblical faith can be defined as confident trust in a reliable source (God or Christ). Reason and faith function in a complementary fashion.
For the full discussion, including some more Scripture references, see pages 78-83 of A World of Difference.