John Owen’s classic, The Death of Death, is not the easiest book to read, but it sure is worth the effort! Since I’ll be preaching through the doctrines of grace later this Summer, I’m reading Owen’s book again as part of sermon preparation. Here’s a helpful section I ran across this morning. Owen said this is one of the dilemmas of Universalism:
God imposed his wrath due unto, and Christ underwent the pains of hell for
1) either all the sins of all men,
2) all the sins of some men,
3) some sins of all men.
If the last (3), some sins of all men, then all men have some sins to answer for, and so shall no man be saved; for if God enter into judgment with us, though it were with all mankind for one sin, no flesh should be justified in his sight: “If the LORD should mark iniquities, who should stand?” Ps. 130:3. We might all go to cast all that we have “to the moles and to the bats, to go into the clefts of the rocks, and into the tops of the ragged rocks, for fear of the LORD, and for the glory of his majesty,” Isa. 2:20, 21.
If the second (2), that is it which we affirm, that Christ in their stead and room suffered for all the sins of all the elect in the world.
If the first (1), (all the sins of all men) why, then, are not all freed from the punishment of all their sins? You will say, “Because of their unbelief; they will not believe.” But this unbelief, is it a sin, or not? If it is not sin, why should they be punished for it? If it is sin, then either Christ underwent the punishment due to it or he did not. If he did, then why must that hinder them from partaking of the fruit of his death more than their other sins for which he died? If he did not undergo the punishment do to the sin of unbelief, then did he not die for all their sins.
Let them choose which part they will.
NOTE: I’ve edited the above a bit to make it easier to read. The quote can be found in John Owen, The Works of John Owen, ed. William H. Goold, vol. 10 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, n.d.), 173–174.