One of the major biblical reasons why I believe and teach the doctrine of limited atonement (better: definite atonement) has to do with Jesus’ work of salvation. Specifically, the Bible teaches that Jesus’ obedience, suffering, and death is very much connected to his resurrection, ascension, and intercession (Is. 53:12b, Rom. 8:33-34). Those for whom Jesus obeyed, suffered, and died are the same ones for whom he rose, ascended, and intercedes. John Owen made this argument in The Death of Death, where he says that Christ’s oblation and his intercession are intimately connected:
“…They are both alike intended for the obtaining and accomplishing the same entire and complete end proposed, that is, the effectual bringing of many sons to glory, for the praise of God’s grace. …The object of the one is of no larger extent than the object of the other. In other words, Christ intercedes on behalf of the ones he offered himself for, and only those, as he says himself in John 17:19.
…The sole end why Christ procured anything by his death was that it might be applied to them for whom it was so procured. The sum is, that the oblation and intercession of Jesus Christ are one entire means for the producing of the same effect, the very end of the oblation being that all those things which are bestowed by the intercession of Christ, and without whose application it should certainly fail of the end proposed in it….”
We cannot say that Christ died for all and only intercedes for some, since Paul said that Christ who died for us also intercedes for us (Rom. 8:33-34). Again, here’s Owen:
“That he died for all and intercedeth only for some will scarcely be squared to this text, especially considering the foundation of all this, which is (verse 32) the love of God which moved him to give up Christ do death for us all; upon which the apostle infers a kind of impossibility in not giving us all good things in him; which how it can be reconciled with their opinion who affirm that he gave his Son for millions to whom he will give neither grace nor glory, I cannot see.
The extent of Christ’s atonement matches the extent of his intercession. His atonement is limited to the elect, as is his intercession. It’s not theological nitpicking; this has to do with the glorious work of Christ! We never want to detract or subtract from Christ’s work. Furthermore, it is a great comfort to know that Jesus definitely died for me and now definitely intercedes for me! He left nothing undone in the work of redemption. So I can rest comfortably in his finished work.
The above quotes (edited for readability and length) are found in Owen’s The Death of Death, p. 68-70.