Double Predestination in the Carolingian Era

In the 9th century, a Saxon monk named Gottschalk taught what is known today as double predestination.  Swedish historian Bengt Hagglund explains it this way: "[Gottschalk] claimed (with some justification) that he found support for his teaching in the writings of Augustine" (p. 153).  Hagglund goes on. "Gottschalk did not say...that certain persons are predestined …

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