The Extent of the Atonement (Gottschalk)

Gottschalk (d. 869) was one of those theologians in the medieval church that stood firmly on the doctrines of sovereign grace (much like Augustine did in the early church context).  In J. Pelikan's Growth of Medieval Theology, there's a section about Gottschalk's explanation of Christ's atonement - specifically the extent of it (that is, definite or indefinite atonement).  …

Double Predestination in the Carolingian Era

In the 9th century, a Saxon monk named Gottschalk taught what is known today as double predestination.  Swedish historian Bengt Hagglund explains it this way: "[Gottschalk] claimed (with some justification) that he found support for his teaching in the writings of Augustine" (p. 153).  Hagglund goes on. "Gottschalk did not say...that certain persons are predestined …

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