I’ve been reading through Anselm of Canterbury’s De Concordia, which was one of the last things he wrote before his death in 1109 AD. De Concordia is no easy read, since it deals philosophically with the difficult topics of God’s foreknowledge and predestination as well as human freedom. In fact, I’m still wrestling through some things he says, and I’m not sure I’m totally in agreement. However, it is worth the read. Here’s a sample:
“If one rightly grasps the meaning of the word foreknown, by the very fact that something is said to be foreknown, its future existence is declared. For it is not foreknown unless it shall actually be, since the object of knowledge is what is actually the case” (p. 437).
“Predestination is the equivalent of pre-ordination and pre-establishment; and therefore to say that God predestines means that he pre-ordains, that is, to bring it about that something happen in the future. But it seems that whatever God decrees to happen in the future shall happen of necessity. Therefore, whatever God predestines shall happen of necessity” (p. 449).
“It should also be understood that the word ‘foreknowledge,’ as also the word ‘predestine’ are not used of God literally, for in him there is no before or after, but all things are present to him at once” (p. 450).
De Concordia is an interesting read, that’s for sure! This also reminds me that the discussions of predestination and the will certainly did not originate with the Canons of Dort or John Calvin. By the way, this book, Anselm of Canterbury: The Major Works (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) is under $10 at the WTS bookstore. If you’re into historical theology, or you want some primary sources for medieval theology, I’d recommend this book. For that good price, you get a solid paperback (c. 500 pages) which contains other works such as Monologion, Proslogion, and Why God Became Man (Cur Deus Homo), among others.