I read this book last year and really appreciated it: Jesus and the Logic of History by Paul Barnett. Recently, as I was skimming through it again, I found the following section where Barnett helpfully talks about the resurrection of Christ and the various theories of it (e.g. the disciples stole the body, Jesus wasn’t really dead but revived in the tomb, or that they crucified the wrong person by mistake):
The view held by many contemporary scholars, that the disciples were subject to some kind of visionary experiences, is hard to accept. Two people sharing one bed seldom have the same dream. The proposal that between five and six hundred people on twelve or so separate occasions over forty days had the same visionary experience is extremely unlikely.
In any case ‘resurrection from the dead’, a Jewish concept, literally means, ‘standing up in the midst of corpses’ (anastasis nekron). A resurrection which was not bodily is self-contradictory and has ben likened to a circle which is square. The various subjective or visionary theories of the resurrection are culturally contradictory.
Here’s how Barnett ends this section:
There is only one serious alternative explanation. It is that the disciples stole the body and proclaimed Jesus to have been raised from the dead. In other words, it was a deception, a hoax. A number of objections may be raised against this hypothesis. Apart from the unlikelihood that the perpetrators would call a gospel based on deceit the ‘word of truth’ and repeatedly call for truthful behavior among believers, such a theory is difficult to reconcile with subsequent apostolic history.
Through the pages of the New Testament we are able to trace the ministries of Peter, James and Paul, the leaders of various mission groups, from the time of the resurrection to their martyr-deaths. This is a period of about three decades. It is implausible that all three would have maintained the deception throughout those years and then gone to their deaths without exposing a hoax. Moreover, there was more than a little friction between these men. Had the resurrection not been true, it is likely that one or other of these strong personalities would have broken ranks to expose the others.
Covenant Presbyterian Church (OPC)