I appreciate Wayne Grudem’s discussion of providence in his Systematic Theology (ch. 16). At one point, after discussing the doctrine of God’s providence, Grudem wrestles with the topic of good/evil and how they relate to this doctrine. Here is an abridgment of Grudem’s analysis of the Bible’s teaching.
1) God uses all things to fulfill his purposes and even uses evil for his glory and for our good. Thus, when evil comes into our lives to trouble us, we can have from the doctrine of providence a deeper assurance that ‘God causes all things to work together for the good of those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose’ (Rom. 8:28 NASB). We can realize that God is glorified even in the punishment of evil (Prov. 16:4, Ps. 76:10, Rom. 9:14-24).
2) Nevertheless, God never does evil, and is never to be blamed for evil. In Luke 22:22, Jesus combines God’s predestination of his crucifixion with the moral blame on those who carry it out (cf. Matt. 26:24, Mark 14:21, Acts 2:23, 4:27-28). God uses evil for his purposes, but he never does evil and is not to be blamed for it. There is such a thing as secondary causes; human beings do cause evil and are responsible for it.
3) God rightfully blames and judges moral creatures for the evil they do. Many passages in Scripture affirm this (Is. 66:3-4, Ecc. 7:29, Rom. 9:19-20). The blame for evil is always on the responsible creature, whether man or demon, who does it, and the creature who does evil is always worthy of punishment.
4) Evil is real, not an illusion, and we should never do evil, for it will always harm us and others. Scripture consistently teaches that we never have a right to do evil, and that we should persistently oppose it in ourselves and in the world. We are to pray, ‘Deliver us from evil’ (Matt. 6:13). See also James 5:19-20 and 1 Peter 2:1.
5) ‘The problem of God’s relation to sin remains a mystery,’ as Berkhof said. In spite of all the foregoing statements, we have come to the point where we confess that we do not understand how it is that God can ordain that we carry out evil deeds and yet hold us accountable for them and not be blamed himself. We can affirm all these things are true, because Scripture teaches them. But Scripture does not tell us exactly how God brings this situation about or how it can be that God holds us accountable for what he ordains comes to pass.
These are helpful statements. Again, you’ll have to read chapter 16 for the unabridged version. The Bible for sure does tell us some things that we have to believe and other things we have to reject about God’s providence, good, and evil. And at the end of the day, we sing Paul’s doxology in Romans 11 that magnifies God’s sovereignty as well as the fact that we are finite creatures and he is the infinite Creator.